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# Take it to the Limit

We address Excel’s limits.  Sometimes a little difficult, you might need the vision of an eagle to take it to the limit... By Liam Bastick, director (and Excel MVP) with SumProduct Pty Ltd.

### Query

I have heard you say that you can do anything in Excel – eventually – all that limits you is imagination.  Is that strictly true?

Erm, not quite.  There are hard and fast limits defined by the software and these limits are reproduced below.  It should be noted that where limitations are attributable to available memory, this depends not just on your computer’s memory but whether you are running 32-bit or 64-bit Excel, as 32-bit Excel is typically restricted to c.2GB of available memory depending upon your computer’s specifications, applications open and the version of Excel you are running.

The specifications and limitations can be classified into five sections:

1. Calculations
2. Charting
3. PivotTables and PivotCharts
4. Sharing workbooks
5. Workbooks and worksheets

I now summarise the main specifications and limitations of each.

Feature Maximum Limit
Area dependency Limited by available memory
Area dependency per worksheet Limited by available memory
Arguments in a function 255, unless restricted by syntax otherwise
Cross-worksheet array formula dependency Limited by available memory
Cross-worksheet dependency 64,000 worksheets that can refer to other sheets
Dependency on a single cell 4 billion formulae that can depend on a single cell
Earliest date allowed for calculation January 1, 1900 (January 1, 1904, if 1904 date system)
Internal length of formula 16,384 bytes
Iterations 32,767
Largest allowed negative number -1.00 x 10308
Largest allowed negative number via formula -1.7976931348623158 x 10308
Largest allowed positive number 1.00 x 10308
Largest allowed positive number via formula 1.7976931348623158 x 10308
Largest amount of time that can be entered 9999:59:59
Latest date allowed for calculation December 31, 9999
Length of formula contents 8,192 characters
Linked cell content length from closed workbooks 32,767
Nested levels of functions 64 (Excel 2007 onwards); 7 previously
Number of available worksheet functions 341, although this really depends upon your definition of “available functions”
Number precision 15 digits
Selected ranges 2,048
Size of the operand stack 1,024
Smallest allowed negative number -2.23 x 10-308
Smallest allowed positive number 2.23 x 10-308
User defined function categories 255
Worksheet arrays Limited by available memory
Feature Maximum Limit
Charts linked to a worksheet Limited by available memory
Data point for all data series in one chart Limited by available memory
Data points in a data series for 2-D charts Limited by available memory
Data points in a data series for 3-D charts Limited by available memory
Data series in one chart 255
Worksheets referred to by a chart 255
Charts linked to a worksheet Limited by available memory
Feature Maximum Limit
Calculated item formulas in a PivotChart report Limited by available memory
Calculated item formulas in a PivotTable report Limited by available memory
Items displayed in filter drop-down lists 10,000 (Excel 2007 and later); 1,000 previously
Length for a relational PivotTable string 32,767
Length of the MDX name for a PivotTable item 32,767
PivotTable reports on a sheet Limited by available memory
Report filters in a PivotChart report 256 (although this may be limited by available memory)
Report filters in a PivotTable report 256 (although this may be limited by available memory)
Row or column fields in a PivotTable report Limited by available memory
Unique items per field 1,048,576
Value fields in a PivotChart report 256
Value fields in a PivotTable report 256
Calculated item formulas in a PivotChart report Limited by available memory
Feature Maximum Limit
Cells that can be highlighted in a shared workbook 32,767
Colours used to identify changes made by different users when change highlighting is turned on 32 (each user is identified by a separate colour; changes made by the current user are highlighted with navy blue)
Days that change history is maintained 32,767 (default is 30 days)
Excel Tables in a shared workbook 0 (zero). Note: a workbook that contains one or more Excel Tables cannot be shared.
Personal views in a shared workbook Limited by available memory
Users who can open and share a shared workbook at the same time 256
Workbooks that can be merged at one time Limited by available memory
Feature Maximum Limit
Adjustable cells in Solver 200
Changing cells allowed in Scenario Manager 32
Characters in a header or footer 255
Colours in a workbook 16 million colours (32 bit with full access to 24 bit colour spectrum)
Column width 255 characters
Conditional formats Limited by available memory
Custom functions Limited by available memory
Custom number formats in a cell 4 (positive, negative, zero and text) or 3 (two conditions and a remainder)
Fields in a data form 32
Fill styles 256
Items displayed in filter drop-down lists 10,000 from Excel 2007 onwards; 1,000 previously
Line styles 256
Line weight 256
Linked sheets Limited by available memory
Named views in a workbook Limited by available memory
Names in a workbook Limited by available memory
Non-contiguous cells that can be selected 2,147,483,648 cells, although if you selected one cell a second at that rate, it would still take you slightly over 68 years without eating, drinking or sleeping! However, note that you may only select a maximum of 2,048 separate ranges
Number formats in a workbook Between 200 and 250, depending upon the language version of Excel installed
Open workbooks Limited by available memory and system resources
Page breaks 1,026 horizontal and vertical
Panes in a window 4
Reports Limited by available memory
Row height 409 points
Scenarios in Scenario Manager Limited by available memory; a summary report shows only the first 251 scenarios
Sheets in a workbook Limited by available memory (default is 3 sheets in Excel 2007 onwards; 16 previously)
Sort references 64 in a single sort; unlimited when using sequential sorts
Total number of characters that a cell can contain 32,767 characters
Undo levels 100
Unique cell formats/cell styles 64,000
Unique font types 1,024 global fonts available for use; 512 per workbook
Windows in a workbook Limited by available memory
Workbook parameters 255 parameters per workbook
Worksheet size 1,048,576 rows by 16,384 columns
Zoom range 10% to 400%

### Word to the Wise

It should be noted that the closer you push Excel to the edge of its capabilities, the more likely a workbook will fail, i.e. it will corrupt and / or crash.  These limits put pressure on available memory more so than file size ever could.  The limits are provided for information only and Excel works much better if you stay far, far away from these thresholds.  You have been warned!

If you have any questions regarding the limits of Excel please feel free to drop Liam a line at liam.bastick@sumproduct.com