Please note javascript is required for full website functionality.


Power Pivot Principles: The A to Z of DAX Functions – COMBINEVALUES

24 May 2022

In our long-established Power Pivot Principles articles, we continue our series on the A to Z of Data Analysis eXpression (DAX) functions. This week, we look at COMBINEVALUES.


This function joins two or more text strings into one text string.  This is used primarily to support multi-column relationships in DirectQuery models.

The COMBINEVALUES function employs the following syntax to operate:

COMBINEVALUES(delimiter, expression, expression[, expression, …])

The COMBINEVALUES function has the following arguments:

  • delimiter: this is required and represents the separator used during concatenation.  This must be a constant value
  • expression: the first two arguments are required and represent DAX expressions whose values will be joined into a single text string.

It should be further noted that:

  •  the COMBINEVALUES function assumes, but does not validate, that when the input values are different, the output strings are also different.  Based upon this assumption, when COMBINEVALUES is used to create calculated columns in order to build a relationship that joins multiple columns from two DirectQuery tables, an optimised join condition is generated at query time.

    For example, if users want to create a relationship between Table1(Column1, Column2) and Table2(Column1, Column2), they can create two calculated columns, one on each table, as:

Table1[CalcColumn] = COMBINEVALUES(",", Table1[Column1], Table1[Column2])


Table2[CalcColumn] = COMBINEVALUES(",", Table2[Column1], Table2[Column2]),

and then create a relationship between Table1[CalcColumn] and Table2[CalcColumn].  Unlike other DAX functions and operators, which are translated literally to the corresponding SQL operators and functions, the above relationship generates a SQL join predicate as:

(Table1.Column1 = Table2.Column1 OR Table1.Column1 IS NULL AND Table2.Column1 IS NULL)


(Table1.Column2 = Table2.Column2 OR Table1.Column2 IS NULL AND Table2.Column2 IS NULL)


  • the join predicate can potentially deliver much better query performance than one that involves complex SQL operators and functions
  • the COMBINEVALUES function relies upon users to choose the appropriate delimiter to ensure that unique combinations of input values produce distinct output strings, but it does not validate that the assumption is true.  For example, if users choose "| " as the delimiter, but one row in Table1 has Table1[Column1] = "| " and Table2 [Column2] = " ", while one row in Table2 has Table2[Column1] = " " and Table2[Column2] = "| ", the two concatenated outputs will be the same "|| ", which seem to indicate that the two rows are a match in the join operation.  The two rows are not joined together if both tables are from the same DirectQuery source although they are joined together if both tables are imported.

Please see my example below:

The DAX query

EVALUATE DISTINCT(SELECTCOLUMNS(DimDate, "Month", COMBINEVALUES(", ", [MonthName], [CalendarYear])))

would return the single column table (say):

January, 2021
February, 2021
March, 2021
April, 2021
May, 2021
June, 2021
July, 2021
August, 2021
September, 2021
October, 2021
November, 2021
December, 2021
January, 2022
February, 2022
March, 2022
April, 2022
May, 2022
June, 2022
July, 2022
August, 2022
September, 2022
October, 2022
November, 2022
December, 2022

Come back next week for our next post on Power Pivot in the Blog section. In the meantime, please remember we have training in Power Pivot which you can find out more about here. If you wish to catch up on past articles in the meantime, you can find all of our Past Power Pivot blogs here.