# A to Z of Excel Functions: The PERCENTILE.INC Function

7 August 2023

*Welcome
back to our regular A to Z of Excel Functions blog. Today we look at the PERCENTILE.INC function. *

** **

**The
PERCENTILE.INC function**

The **n**th percentile of a dataset is the value
that cuts off the first **n**% of the data values when all of the values are
sorted from least to greatest. For
example, the 90th percentile of a dataset is the value that segregates the
bottom 90% of the data values from the top 10% of data values.

There are three distinct functions you can use to calculate percentiles in Excel:

**PERCENTILE.EXC:**this function returns the**k**th percentile of a dataset, excluding the values zero [0] and one [1]**PERCENTILE.INC:**this function returns the**k**th percentile of a dataset, including the values zero [0] and one [1]**PERCENTILE:**this function returns the**k**th percentile of a dataset as well. It will return the same value as the**PERCENTILE.INC**function.

In almost all cases, it is probably best to use the **PERCENTILE.INC** function because this function includes the values zero
[0] and one [1] when calculating the percentiles and is the function that
effectively “replaces” **PERCENTILE**.

No matter which of the three functions you use to
calculate percentiles, the difference between the values calculated by **PERCENTILE.EXC **and **PERCENTILE.INC** will be similar in most cases. In some instances, it’s even possible that
the two functions will return precisely the same values depending upon the
numbers analysed.

The **PERCENTILE.INC** function is a statistical
function that calculates the value at a given percentile in a dataset. It considers the range between zero [0] and
one[1] including the extreme values. This
function is particularly useful when analysing data distributions and
understanding the relative position of a specific value within a dataset. For example, you can decide to examine
candidates who score above the 90th percentile.

The **PERCENTILE.INC **function has the
following syntax:

**=PERCENTILE.INC(array,
k)**

It contains two arguments:

**array**which is required and represents the array of values or range of data that defines relative standing**k**which is also required is a value 0 ≤**k**≤ 1 (0..1 inclusive), which represents the percentile (or**k**th percentage).

It should be noted that:

- if
**array**is empty,**PERCENTILE.INC**returns the*#NUM!*error value - if
**k**is nonnumeric,**PERCENTILE.INC**returns the*#VALUE!*error value - if
**k**is < 0 or if**k**> 1,**PERCENTILE.INC**returns the*#NUM!*error value - if
**k**is not a multiple of**1/(n + 1)**(where**n**is the number of values in the**array**),**PERCENTILE.INC**interpolates to determine the value at the**k**th percentile **PERCENTILE.INC**will interpolate when the value for the specified percentile lies between two [2] values in the array. If it cannot interpolate for the percentile,**k**specified, Excel will return*#NUM!*error- the
**array**argument ignores text, logic, date and time values.

Please see my examples below:

*We’ll continue our A to Z of Excel Functions soon. Keep checking back – there’s a new blog post every business day.*

*A full page of the function articles can be found here. *