# A to Z of Excel Functions: the AND Function

3 August 2016

*Welcome back to our regular A to Z of Excel Functions blog. Today we look at the AND Function. *

**The AND function**

My old English teacher said you should never start or finish a sentence with the word “and”. **AND** is one of several Excel logic functions (others include **NOT**, **OR** and **XOR**). It returns TRUE if all of its arguments evaluate to TRUE; it returns FALSE if one or more arguments evaluate to FALSE.

One common use for the **AND** function is to expand the usefulness of other functions that perform logical tests. For example, the **IF** function performs a logical test and then returns one value if the test evaluates to **TRUE **and another value if the test evaluates to **FALSE.** By using the **AND** function as the **logical_test** argument of the **IF **function, you can test many different conditions instead of just one.

For example, imagine you are in New York on a Monday. Consider the expression

**=AND(condition1, condition2, condition3)**

where:

**condition1**is the condition, “today is Monday”**condition2**is the condition, “you are in New York”*and***condition3**is the condition, “this author is the best looking guy you have ever seen”.

This would clearly be FALSE as not everywhere in the world it would be Monday (*i.e.* **condition1** would be breached)…

As alluded to above, the syntax for **AND** is as follows:

**AND(logical1, [logical2], …)**

where:

**logical1:**the first condition that you want to test that can evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE**logical2:**additional conditions that you want to test that can evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE, up to a maximum of 225 conditions.**logical2**is optional and is not needed in the syntax.

It should be noted that:

- The arguments must evaluate to logical values, such as TRUE or FALSE, or the arguments must be arrays or references that contain logical values
- If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored
- If the specified range contains no logical values, the
**AND**function returns the*#VALUE!*error values.

Please see my example below:

*We’ll continue our A to Z of Excel Functions soon. Keep checking back – there’s a new blog post every other business day.*

*A full page of the function articles can be found here. *